قديم 07-04-2014, 06:35 PM   #1
♣ صاحبة همس المصريين ♣
 
الصورة الرمزية د/ إلهام
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Wed Jun 2011
المشاركات: 34,752
معدل تقييم المستوى: 20
د/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond reputeد/ إلهام has a reputation beyond repute

اوسمتي

تيو Conrad Lynn and attorneys'

Conrad Lynn and attorneys'

Conrad J. Lynn November 4.1908 – November 16, 1995) was an African American civil rights lawyer and activist known for providing legal representation for activists, including many unpopular defendants. Among the causes he supported as a lawyer were civil rights, Puerto Rican nationalism, and opposition to the draft during both World War II and the Vietnam War. The controversial defendants he represented included civil rights activist Robert F. Williams and Black Panther leader H. Rap Brown.

Early life and education
Lynn was born in Newport, Rhode Island, to parents who had moved north from Georgia. His mother was a domestic worker and his father, a Republican, worked as a laborer. When he was a child, the family moved to Rockville Centre on Long Island. Lynn attended law school at Syracuse University on a debating scholarship, in 1932 becoming the first black to graduate from the Syracuse University College of Law.

As a young man in the 1920s and 1930s, he was a member of the Communist Party, but he was ousted in the late 1930s because he had defied the party by supporting Trinidadian oil workers who went on strike against Britain. He never rejoined. Years later, the House Un-American Activities Committee was to describe him as "indiscriminate in support of Communist organizations.


Career as a lawyer and activist

African American civil rights
In April 1947, Lynn participated in the Journey of Reconciliation, a challenge to Jim Crow laws that later came to be considered the first "freedom ride" of the American civil rights movement – a forerunner to the freedom rides of the 1960s. Sixteen civil rights activists, eight of them black and eight of them white, boarded Greyhound and Trailways buses and traveled through Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee to bring public attention to the reality of racial segregation and dramatize the South's widespread disregard of the 1946 U.S. Supreme Court decision Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, which held that the U.S. Constitution barred racial segregation in interstate transportation. Lynn was the first of the group to be arrested, for sitting in the white section of a Trailways bus departing from Richmond, Virginia. Lynn told the bus driver that the Supreme Court had ruled against segregation on interstate buses, but the driver responded that his employer was Trailways, not the Supreme Court, and he was following Trailways rules. After being released on bail in Richmond, Lynn traveled to Raleigh, North Carolina, where he joined his colleagues on the bus and completed the journey.

In 1958, Lynn became involved in the highly publicized North Carolina "Kissing Case", involving a pair of African American boys, 7 and 9 years old, who were jailed, convicted of rape, and sentenced to reform school until age 21 after they playfully kissed (or were kissed by) a white girl as part of a game. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) could not enlist any of its attorneys to represent the boys and referred the case to Lynn. After learning that the boys had already been convicted and sentenced by a county juvenile court judge without having either legal counsel or an opportunity to confront their accusers, as required by the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution, Lynn appealed the conviction, but without result. He then contacted former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt for assistance; she urged President Dwight Eisenhower to intervene in the situation. As a result of these efforts and international attention that Lynn and others managed to bring to the case, after three months' detention the boys were given pardons by the governor of North Carolina and released.

The Kissing Case was Lynn's first collaboration with North Carolina civil rights activist Robert F. Williams.[7] In 1959, Lynn protested Williams' suspension from the NAACP, and urged the organization to adopt a more "militant program". Lynn later represented Williams as a lawyer during the 1960s, when Williams, who had become increasingly militant, exiled himself in Cuba, China, and Tanzania to escape prosecution in the United States for a charge of kidnapping. Lynn visited Williams in Cuba.

In the mid-1960s, Lynn teamed with attorney William Kunstler to represent the Harlem Six (six black teenagers) in appealing their murder conviction for robbing a secondhand store and killing one of the store's proprietors. The two attorneys believed that the teenagers had been framed. In the appeal filed in 1965, Lynn and Kunstler asked for the convictions to be overturned on the grounds that the Six had not had competent legal counsel for their trial. The convictions were reversed for a different reason – that some trial evidence had been inappropriately admitted. Retrials were ordered, beginning in November 1970, when two of the Six were retried. Lynn and Kunstler revealed their discovery that two prosecution witnesses had committed perjury in the first trial. After the trial concluded, the jury reported that it could not reach a verdict, so the trial was declared a mistrial. After another trial was held, again ending in a mistrial, the defendants were allowed to plead guilty to manslaughter in exchange for their immediate release from confinement


Military draft
During World War II, Lynn represented his eldest brother Winfred Lynn in his resistance against the draft. Winfred Lynn refused induction into the United States Army as a protest against the Army's racial segregation, telling the government that he would gladly serve in the unsegregated Canadian Army, but would not serve in the segregated U.S. Army. conrad Lynn's decision to handle his brother's case was contrary to the advice of civil rights organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) that considered support of the U.S. war effort to be in the best interest of African Americans. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) also refused to take the case, but ACLU attorney Arthur Garfield Hays participated with conrad Lynn in Winfred Lynn's defense, and Socialist leader Norman Thomas and journalist Dwight MacDonald led a support effort under the name Lynn Committee to End Discrimination in the Armed Forces. Winfred Lynn's case was based on a contention that racial discrimination in the military violated the Selective Service Act of 1940. After the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against Lynn in February 1944, opining that the Selective Service Act's ban on discrimination did not bar segregation, the plaintiffs appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1945, the Supreme Court denied Winfred Lynn's certiorari request on the grounds that the case was moot because Winfred Lynn (who had been informed by an earlier court ruling that he need to submit to military induction to keep his case alive) was by then in military service overseas. Looking back on the case in 1973, conrad Lynn told a reporter that the legal battle had served "to make the public — particularly the white majority — aware that black people resented segregation as a mark of inferiority" and had helped bring an end to segregation in the Army in 1948.

Two decades later, in the 1960s, Lynn represented a number of men who resisted the draft due to their opposition to the Vietnam War. In 1970 he argued the case of Gillette v. United States before the United States Supreme Court, challenging the constitutionality of the law that limited conscientious objector status to men who objected to war in general. He did not prevail in that case; the court's ruling in 1971 rejected all three arguments that had been advanced in support of selective conscientious objection.


المواضيع المتشابهه:


Conrad Lynn and attorneys' conrad

د/ إلهام غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-05-2014, 06:09 AM   #2
|| المدير الأول لهمس ||
 
الصورة الرمزية محمدعبد العال
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Thu Dec 2011
المشاركات: 43,746
معدل تقييم المستوى: 62
محمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond reputeمحمدعبد العال has a reputation beyond repute

اوسمتي

افتراضي رد: Conrad Lynn and attorneys'

خالص شكري و تقديري
لما قدمتم هنا من معلومات
و من جهد رائع
جزاكم الله خيرا
و نفع بكم
دمتم بخير

__________________
محمدعبد العال غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
إضافة رد

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

الكلمات الدلالية (Tags)
attorneys', conrad, lynn


الذين يشاهدون محتوى الموضوع الآن : 1 ( الأعضاء 0 والزوار 1)
 
أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

تعليمات المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة
Trackbacks are معطلة
Pingbacks are معطلة
Refbacks are معطلة


Powered by vBulletin® Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
SEO by vBSEO ©2011, Crawlability, Inc. TranZ By Almuhajir
adv helm by : llssll
الساعة الآن 12:34 PM


اخر المواضيع

خدمات شركة منازل الخليج للخدمات المنزلية المتكاملة بالرياض @ يونيفورم فنادق ومنتجعات (01200561116 ) @ مصنع يونيفورم- شركات يونيفورم(01118689995) @ اماكن تصنيع يونيفورم حضانات( 01003358542) @ مصنع قبعات التخرج- صور ثوب التخرج(01118689995) @ شركات توريد ملابس عمال- شركة 3a لليونيفورم(01003358542) @ أفضل شركات اليونيفورم فى مصر-شركة 3a لليونيفورم ( 01003358542 ) @ يونيفورم المستشفيات والمراكز الطبية(01003358542) @ شركة تصنيع يونيفورم هاوس كيبنج (01200561116) @ جميع موديلات ارواب التخرج (01200561116) @ اماكن تصنيع يونيفورم مدارس (01003358542) @ افضل شركة تشطيبات شقق- شركة تشطيبات (01119959188) @ الكون بودكاست @ يونيفورم مطاعم وكافيهات- يونيفورم كافيهات( 01003358542 ) @ شركات زى الامن والحراسه (01200561116) @ جميع انواع يونيفورم الفنادق(01200561116 ) @ شركة يونيفورم- يونيفورم شركات(01118689995) @ شركات تصنيع يونيفورم حضانات( 01003358542) @ تصاميم عبايات تخرج- قبعة التخرج(01118689995) @ اسماء واماكن مصانع افرولات- شركة 3a لليونيفورم(01003358542) @ شركات يونيفورم فى مصر-شركة 3a لليونيفورم ( 01003358542 ) @ يونيفورم العاملين بالمستشفيات- ملابس طبية(01003358542) @ موديلات يونيفورم هاوس كيبنج- ملابس هاوس كيبنج(01200561116) @ طلب تفسير رؤية الوالد والماء @ افضل شركة ديكور شقق- ديكور شقق(01119959188) @ مصنع ملابس جاهزة- توريد زى موحد(01118689995) @ اماكن تصنيع يونيفورم حضانات( 01003358542) @ روب التخرج لاطفال حضانة(01118689995) @ ملابس شركات البترول- شركة 3a لليونيفورم(01003358542) @ ملابس شركات البترول- شركة 3a لليونيفورم(01003358542) @