قديم 07-10-2014, 04:27 AM   #1
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تيو Pauli Murray and attorneys'

Pauli murray and attorneys'

The Reverend Dr. Anna Pauline "Pauli" murray (November 20, 1910 – July 1, 1985) was an American civil rights activist, women's rights activist, lawyer, and author. She was also the first black woman ordained an Episcopal priest.

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, murray was raised mostly by her maternal grandparents. At the age of sixteen, she moved to New York to attend Hunter College, graduating with a B.A. in English in 1933. In 1940, murray was arrested with a friend for violating Virginia segregation laws after they sat in the whites-only section of a bus. This incident, and her subsequent involvement with the socialist Workers' Defense League, inspired her to become a civil rights lawyer, and she enrolled at Howard University. During her years at Howard, she became increasingly aware of sexism, which she called "Jane Crow", the sister of the Jim Crow racial segregation laws. murray graduated first in her class, but was denied the chance to do further work at Harvard University because of her gender. In 1965 she became the first African American to receive a J.S.D. from Yale Law School.

As a lawyer, murray argued for civil rights and women's rights. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Chief Counsel Thurgood Marshall called Murray's 1950 book States' Laws on Race and Color the "bible" of the civil rights movement. murray served on the 1961 Presidential Commission on the Status of Women and in 1966 was a co-founder of the National Organization for Women. Ruth Bader Ginsburg later named murray a coauthor on a brief for Reed v. Reed in recognition of her pioneering work on gender discrimination. murray held faculty or administrative positions at the Ghana School of Law, Benedict College, and Brandeis University.

In 1973, murray left academia for the Episcopal Church, becoming a priest, and was named an Episcopal saint in 2012. murray struggled with issues related to her sexual and gender identity, describing herself as having an "inverted sex instinct"; she had a brief, annulled marriage to a man and several relationships with women, and in her younger years, occasionally passed as a teenage boy. In addition to her legal and advocacy work, murray published two well-reviewed autobiographies and a volume of poetry.


Early life
Murray was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1910. She was of mixed racial origins, with ancestors including Irish people, free blacks, white slave owners, black slaves, and Native Americans; she once described the varied complexions of her family as a "United Nations in miniature". Her parents—schoolteacher William H. murray and Agnes Fitzgerald Murray—both identified as black. In 1914, Agnes died of a cerebral hemorrhage. After her father began to have emotional problems as a result of typhoid fever, murray was sent to Durham, North Carolina, where she was raised by her aunt, Pauline Fitzgerald Dame, and her maternal grandparents, Robert and Cornelia Fitzgerald. In 1923, her father, who had been confined at Crownsville State Hospital, was beaten to death by a guard.

Murray lived in Durham until the age of sixteen, at which point she moved to New York to finish high school and prepare for college. There she lived with the family of a light-skinned cousin, Maude, who were passing for white in their white neighborhood. Murray's presence discomfited Maude's neighbors, however, as murray was more visibly biracial. murray was briefly married during this time, to a man she referred in her autobiography only as "Billy". She had the marriage annulled several months after it began.

Inspired to attend Columbia University by a favorite teacher, murray was turned away because the university did not admit women; she was also turned away from Barnard College due to lack of funds. Instead she attended Hunter College, a free city university, where she was one of the few black students. murray was encouraged in her writing by one of her English instructors, who gave her an "A" for an essay about her grandfather that later formed the beginning of her memoir Proud Shoes. Murray's first published works, an article and several poems, appeared in the college paper. She graduated in 1933 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English.

Murray then took a job selling subscriptions to Opportunity, the magazine of the National Urban League, a civil rights organization based in New York City. Poor health forced her to resign, however, and her doctor recommended that murray seek a healthier environment. She then took a position at Camp Tera, a "she-she-she" conservation camp established at the urging of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to parallel the male Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps formed as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. However, murray clashed with the camp's director over her possession of Communist materials, her refusal to stand at attention for an inspection by the First Lady, and her relationship with a white counselor, Peg Holmes. murray and Holmes left the camp in February 1935, and began traveling the country by walking, hitchhiking, and hopping freight trains. murray later worked for the Young Women's Christian Association.


Law school years
Murray applied to the University of North Carolina in 1938, but was rejected because she was African-American. The case was broadly publicized in both white and black newspapers. murray also wrote to officials ranging from the university president to President Roosevelt, releasing their responses to the media in an attempt to embarrass them into action. The NAACP was initially interested in the case, but later declined to represent her in court, apparently fearing that her long residence in New York state weakened her case. NAACP leader Roy Wilkins also opposed the case due to Murray's release of her correspondence, which he considered "not diplomatic". Concerns about her sexuality may also have played a role in the decision; murray often wore pants rather than skirts and was open about her relationships with women.

In early 1940, murray was walking the streets in Rhode Island, distraught after "the disappearance of a woman friend", and was taken into custody by police.[a] She was then transferred to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric treatment. In March, murray left the hospital with Adelene McBean, her roommate and girlfriend, and took a bus to Durham to visit her aunts. In Petersburg, Virginia, the two women moved out of the broken seats in the black section of the bus, where segregation laws mandated that they sit, and into the rear of the white section. Inspired by a conversation they had been having about Gandhian civil disobedience, the two women refused to return to the rear even after the police were called, and they were arrested and jailed. murray and McBean were initially defended by the NAACP, but when the pair were convicted only of disorderly conduct rather than violating segregation laws, the organization ceased to represent them. Her fine was paid by the Workers' Defense League (WDL), a socialist labor rights organization, which a few months later hired murray for its Administrative Committee.

With the WDL, murray became active in the case of Odell Waller, a black Virginia sharecropper sentenced to death for killing his white landlord, Oscar Davis, during an argument. The WDL argued that Davis had cheated Waller and that Waller had fired in legitimate fear of his life. murray toured the country raising funds for Waller's appeal. She also wrote to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt on Waller's behalf. Roosevelt in turn wrote to Virginia Governor James Hubert Price asking him to guarantee that the trial was fair, and later persuaded the president to privately request that the death sentence be commuted. Through this correspondence, murray and Roosevelt began a friendship that would last until the latter's death two decades later. Despite the WDL's and Roosevelt's efforts, however, Waller was executed on July 2, 1942



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Pauli Murray and attorneys' murray

د/ إلهام غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-10-2014, 05:33 PM   #2
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الصورة الرمزية حسام السعيد
 
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حسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant futureحسام السعيد has a brilliant future

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